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  History of Acupuncture
       First Physical Evidence        China        East Asia        Europe        America

The history of acupuncture is often presented as a composite of legends, myths, personal interpretations and political biases. Perhaps the intention is to keep it simple and convincing.
On this page, we present the history based only on the factual material and physical evidence that illustrates the more interesting, intriguing and controversial evolutionary aspects that acupuncture has made through the centuries.
 
  Philosophical Background Next   Back to Top
Practical applications of acupuncture techniques can be tracked back to the dawn of civilization. Apparently, acupuncture was practiced in many ancient cultures around the world, as you will see on this page.
The Chinese formalized it and presented it into modern times. Acupuncture as a system of knowledge is deeply rooted in Chinese philosophy.

However, the notion of "unified" Chinese philosophy is inaccurate. In fact, it is a mixture of various ideologies and beliefs.
Confucianism, Taoism (Daoism), and Buddhism form the three main pillars of Chinese thought, keeping in mind that they are not monolithic but multifaceted traditions with complex internal divisions.
Confucianism, Taoism of all trends, different branches of Buddhism, all represent Chinese philosophy and heavily influenced Traditional Chinese Medicine and acupuncture.


These teachings have determined Chinese society for thousands of years. Acupuncture, as a medical system, was an integral part of this social environment. Without this social background, it would have been inconceivable.
The evolutions of the official policy would lift certain ideology while the other would fall out of favor. For instance, Confucianism was dominant philosophy when Buddhism entered China in the first century AD.
But two centuries earlier, the Chinese Emperor Qin Shi Huang burned most of the Confucian literature in the country and sentenced thousands of intellectuals to years of forced labor on the Great Wall as political prisoners, where most of them perished.

Traditional schools of acupuncture, with their diversity, sometimes appear inconsistent or contradictory. In reality, they bear influence of different philosophies and reflect different theoretical backgrounds.
This explains differences that we see in various acupuncture schools, their terminology, clinical interpretations and emphasis on different basic concepts.

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  First Physical Evidence Next   Back to Top
Ironically, the first physical evidence of acupuncture was found not in China but in central Europe.
In 1991 the scientific world was rocked by the discovery of "The Ice Man", a 5,300-year-old mummified man found in the Italian Alps along the border with Austria. The frozen body was remarkably well preserved.
One of the most remarkable discoveries was a complicated system of bluish-black tattoos running along his back, right knee and left ankle. The locations of the "tattoos" corresponded precisely to acupuncture points and meridians, including the 'master point for back pain'.
Apparently he suffered from back pain that was confirmed by a series of X-rays of his body, with evidence of acute arthritis in the lumbar spine. Otherwise he was in good health, he had all his teeth with no cavities. He was approximately 45 years old at the moment of sudden death...

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  China & East Asia Next   Back to Top
Acupuncture's beginnings lie in China but there is a lot of contradictory information concerning the date of its genesis. What is certain is that acupuncture was used around 2000 BC in China.
Drawings dating from around 1600 BC reveal that sharpened bamboo and bronze needles were used in treatment. Excavations have uncovered sharpened stones dating from around 3000 BC which may indicate the beginnings of acupuncture.
The first medical account of acupuncture was NEI CHING SU WEN "The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine" which dates from about 200 BC.
Throughout the centuries, acupuncture flourished in China despite the periods when it was suppressed (from the Qing Dynasty to the Opium Wars: 1644-1840).
In the 20-th century, following the Revolution of 1911 Western Medicine was introduced in China. Acupuncture and herbs remained the only option in rural communities, and the term "barefoot doctor" emerged. In 1932 when Chang Khi Chek seized power in China, acupuncture was banned in the cities.
Chairman Mao took over in 1945 and Chang Khi Chek escaped to the island of Formosa (now Taiwan).
China was closed to the West and acupuncture was restored as the method of healing in a country deprived of antibiotics and western medical equipment.
From the 1970-s China's policy became more open, and its medical system benefits from modern technologies while remains loyal to the time-honored tradition.
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  Europe Next   Back to Top
Traditionally associated with China, Japan, and Korea, acupuncture is incorporated into medical practice in Europe. Acupuncture was introduced in Europe by European physicians who brought it from Far Eastern colonies. That mode of introduction made it credible.
The first known European acupuncture publication was dated 1658 and was published in Holland. The Dutch doctor Jakob de Bondt published an extensive, six volume work about the history of nature and medicine in East India.
Modern medicine as we know it today did not exist yet, and there were 300 years of parallel development, interaction, and scientific scrutiny.
There are similarities and differences in the contexts of European and Chinese acupuncture. The similarity is that there is close communication and contribution between acupuncturists practicing in Europe and China. European professional's practice based on the principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Chinese practitioners promptly accommodate and incorporate new European techniques such as electropuncture and concepts like auriculopuncture.
The difference is that European acupuncture coexists with highly advanced, state-of-the-art modern medicine, and Chinese acupuncture does not. Acupuncture in China quite often aims to replace conventional medicine to fill the gaps and deficits in healthcare.
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  America Next   Back to Top
In the United states, the first publication on acupuncture in 1826 belongs to Bache Franklin M.D., great grandson of Benjamin Franklin.
In 1892, Sir William Osler B.T., M.D., FBS in his fundamental work "the Principles and Practice of Medicine" featured acupuncture as recommended treatment for lumbago.
Rapid advance of Western medicine and biological science in the beginning of twentieth century marginalized acupuncture practice, and after the 1920's acupuncture was rarely ever used with the exception of Chinatowns.
It was not until 1971, when interest to acupuncture revived.
James Reston reporter for the New York Times with Nixon's Chinese trip had an emergency appendectomy with acupuncture anesthesia His post operative pain was relieved by acupuncture at the Anti-Imperialist Hospital in Peking, China. This brought great publicity to acupuncture and renewed interest in this form of treatment.
In 1996 in America, needles were removed from the "investigative" category to accepted medical instruments
In 1997 The National Institute of Health issued the Consensus Statement that recognized that "Acupuncture as a therapeutic intervention is widely practiced in the United States" and "may be useful as an adjunct treatment or an acceptable alternative or be included in a comprehensive management program." NIH has formed a department of Alternative Health care to provide needed research funding in alternative avenues of medical care.
 
   Acupuncture in America Next   Back to Top

Bache Franklin M.D., great grandson of Benjamin Franklin, in 1826 published an article, "Case illustrative of remial effects of acupuncture" showing how acupuncture was beneficial in the patient use in treating the penal system of Philadelphia.

During the 1800s, Dr. Hall, in Pennsylvania used DC current through acupuncture needles for treating non-union fractures.

In 1860, Arthur Garret, a Boston physician, published an entire textbook on electrotherapy. He also applied DC current to acupuncture needles to treat non-unions. In the text he stated that in the few times he'd used it, this method had never failed.

In 1875, Dr. L.H. Cohen used electro-acupuncture as anesthesia for removal of a glandular tumor. There are other examples as well. The point is that the integration of electricity and acupuncture occurred far earlier than most of us realize.

In 1892, Sir William Osler B.T., M.D., FBS in his fundamental work "the Principles and Practice of Medicine" recommended acupuncture treatment for lumbago.

Rapid advance of Western medicine and biological science in the beginning of twentieth century marginalized acupuncture practice, and acupuncture was rarely ever used with the exception of Chinatowns.

It was only in 1972, with Nixon's visit to China, when acupuncture gained media popularity. Since then, it has developed vehemently in the USA.


In July 1971, seven months prior to President Nixon's visit, Henry A. Kissinger, Secretary of State in President Richard M. Nixon's administration, went to Communist China to prepare for a trip the following year as part of the efforts to re-establish relationships with that country.
While in China, one of the accompanying press - James Reston, the famed journalist and vice president of the N.Y. Times - had an acute appendicitis attack.
Chinese physicians made an emergency operation on Reston to remove his appendix. His post operative pain was relieved by acupuncture at the Anti-Imperialist Hospital in Peking, China. This brought great publicity to acupuncture and renewed interest in this form of treatment.

In this historic article "Now, Let Me Tell You About My Appendectomy in Peking..." (New York Times, Monday July 26, 1971) he reported of his experience. America was enthralled.

In addition, it was the fact that Kissinger mentioned the occurrence in a press briefing after the trip, as well as the interest he and President Nixon had about acupuncture, that helped inspire the public's curiosity concerning the technique.

That was an example how public officials and celebrities can help promote new ideas. Newspaper and magazine articles followed, and acupuncture practitioners came out of the woodwork to let people try the technique for relieving pain and many other maladies.

However, when in 1971, E. Gray Diamond M.D. wrote about the experiences in China medical community met his article in JAMA 'Acupuncture anesthesia, western medicine and Chinese traditional medicine' with much skepticism.

Yet, in 1973, the AMA council of scientific affairs declared acupuncture an experimental medical procedure. The FDA then required acupuncture equipment to be labeled as investigative devices as recommended by the AMA.

In 1996 in America, needles were removed from the "investigative" category to accepted medical instruments

In 1997 The National Institute of Health issued the Consensus Statement that recognized that "Acupuncture as a therapeutic intervention is widely practiced in the United States" and "may be useful as an adjunct treatment or an acceptable alternative or be included in a comprehensive management program."

NIH has formed a department of Alternative Health care to provide needed research funding in alternative avenues of medical care.

 
  This page last updated: 14-Mar-2015 Back to Top
 
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