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  Modern Acupuncture
       Acupoints        Meridians        Modern Technologies        Microsystems
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  More about Microsystems
- Microacupuncture systems are one of the manifestations of fractalisation, the universal principle of self-organization in nature.
- The number of possible microsystems is unlimited.
- Resolution of a microsystem and its influence on the organism depend on the size of its projection on the surface of skin, mucous membrane and periosteum.
- This influence is the most effective in the points of the classical acupuncture meridians.
- The fractal-field theory of the microacupuncture systems needs the elaboration of the physiological mechanism for the medical effect realization.

From the article "Microacupuncture Systems as Fractals of the Human Body" by Vadim Bouevitch, M.Ac. (read the article)

 
  Auricular Acupuncture Next   Back to Top

The use of auricular acupuncture as an effective, low-risk therapeutic option. Auriculotherapy is a sophisticated discipline of acupuncture that can be studied to a refined level of precision. Auriculotherapy is well suited for painful conditions, however, adequate skills necessary for safe and effective treatment. It may be used as a sole treatment or may be combined with classical acupuncture.

Historical Background
Examples of treatments using points on the ear are found throughout the literature of many ancient cultures, including Chinese and Persian medical writings as well as Egyptian tomb paintings. The Hippocratic writings discuss cauterization and bleeding of the ear.
European medical publications in the 17th and 18th centuries reported the use of ear cautery to treat dental neuralgia and sciatica.
The scientific exploration and systematic charting of the auricular correspondences were undertaken by Paul Nogier, a French neurophysiologist, starting in the early 1950s. Nogier's teachings and publications were disseminated from France to Germany, and from Germany to China by way of Japan.
In the United States, the precision of the somatotopic mapping was verified in a blinded experiment, showing 92% concordance between established medical diagnoses and auricular diagnoses.

Neuroanatomy of the External Ear
The external ear develops from embryonic gill plates. It is structured of tissue from each of the 3 embryonic layers: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. It has a dense and complex nervous innervation including the greater auricular nerve (C1, C2, C3), auriculotemporal branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V), which has sympathetic fibers, the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (CN X), which has parasympathetic fibers, as well as the facial (CN VII) and the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX).

Physiological Basis of Auricular Acupuncture
Auricular acupuncture is based on a reflex somatotopic system organized on the surface of the external ear, one of many such microsystems on the body.
The speculative neuroanatomical model of this microsystem consists of projections from visceral or somatic organs and their somatotopic projections onto a modulating center in the brain. Afferent signals from each organ after arriving at this central modulating center trigger a change in the corresponding somatotopic focus on the surface of the ear. This change may be detected as a decreased sensory threshold or decreased electrical resistance at the somatotopic focus.
Alternatively, stimulation of the somatotopic focus may either modulate afferent signals from the corresponding organ (Gate Control Theory), or through its effect on the central modulating center, trigger a change in the cerebral cortex or the end organ itself. The brainstem reticular formation with its inhibitory and excitatory influences on ascending and descending sensory, motor, and autonomic impulses, appears to be the most likely central modulating center.
With or without a defined scientific mechanism of action, the auricular microsystem is useful as a diagnostic and therapeutic modality.

(See international bibliography)

Recommended article:

Auriculotherapy: As Enduring as Ever; by Noele A. Stuart, AP (read the article)

 
  Korean Hand Acupuncture (ERA) Next   Back to Top

Historical Background
Korean Hand Acupuncture (ERA) was developed by Dr. Tae-Woo-Yoo in 1971. The validity of Dr. Yoo's map was addressed by Dr. M.H. Cho in 1980. A similar approach was carried by Dr. Yasu Mitsuo in Japan, using thermography to objectively demonstrate the warming of the predicted corresponding body parts by either moxibustion or needling at the KHA hand acupoints.

Physiological Basis
In 1987, Professor Imura of the Japanese Department of Health reported on an experiment treating joint injuries with KHA in the Journal "Ido No Nippon". Treating random points produced a 19.5 % success rate, which may be taken as a measure of the placebo response. But using just the sensitive points in the KHA corresponding areas produced a success rate of 69.5%.
Having demonstrated that the KHA microsystem utilizes a reliable map, and that the traditional beliefs of Oriental medicine alluded to in the previous paragraph can be objectively demonstrated using KHA, we are still no closer to accounting for its physiological mechanism.
Dr. Yoo believes that the answers must be sought after in the nervous system and the circulatory system. A preliminary experiment showed that moxibustion at specific KHA points could selectively augment the Alpha-2 wave amplitude of an EEG, suggesting the involvement of the brain in mediating effects of KHA.

Recommended articles:
"THE PHYSIOLOGICAL BASES OF ACUPUNCTURE MICROSYSTEMS; By PETER ECKMAN, M.D. (read the article)


 
  Yamamoto New Scalp Aupuncture (YNSA) Next   Back to Top

Historical Background
Dr. Toshikatsu Yamamoto of Nishinan, Japan, founded and developed a new form of acupuncture in 1970 while working in a small hospital in South Japan (Nishinan). It was first reported at the 25th annual meeting of the Japanese Society of Ryodoraku in Osaka, Japan, in 1973. To distinguish his method from the earlier Chinese Scalp acupuncture, he added the word NEW after his name.
A further development of the YNSA was discovered by the AITNA-YNSA Germany (Ansbach Institute for Transcranial Neuroacupuncture). The AITNA-YNSA Germany discovered that the chin and cheek somatotopes exist in both the Yin and Yang form. This was the logical continuation of the YNSA system.

Physiological Basis
This micro acupuncture system is different from traditional Chinese acupuncture and Chinese scalp acupuncture. It is both a diagnostic and interactive treatment system in relieving both somatic and visceral pain problems, as well as balancing Qi.
YNSA provides a sophisticated diagnostic method and an immediate feedback after correctly placing the acupuncture needles or other transactional stimulation procedures such as s-c injection of normal saline, xylocaine, electrical stimulation, local pressure or Laser energy. This constant interchange between the probing physician and feedback from the patient`s body enables the practitioner to diagnose and treat a wide variety of clinical problems.

Recommended article:
YAMAMOTO NEW SCALP ACUPUNCTURE (YNSA); by Aristarchos Raftis, MD, PhD. (read the article)

Yamamoto New Scalp Acupuncture; reviewed By David P. Sniezek, MD (read the article)

More coming soon...

 
  Recommended articles: Back to Top


Microacupuncture Systems as Fractals of the Human Body; by Vadim Bouevitch, M.Ac. (read the article)

 
  This page last updated: 14-Mar-2015 Back to Top
 
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